3 Spooky DIY Halloween Science Experiments feat. Physics Girl!

>>ALEX: Hello everyone! Halloween is here, let’s get technical. Wait a sec, I need to costume up. *Snaps fingers.* Ahh,
That’s better. Ok, I know Newt Scamander is a hufflepuff,
but I will not be caught dead wear memorabilia from a house other than my superb Slytherin. And I know a lot people here on Technicality
agree with me. OFF SCREEN: But you were Dumbledore one year
for Halloween. Shut up, that man is a saint. Wow, that off topic
really really quickly. Where was I? Oh yea. It’s that time of year again, pumpkins are
on the doorsteps, kids gobble candy, and we Americans spend about $6.9 billion averaging
$74 bucks a person on Halloween. So, because today is October 31st and who
doesn’t love some good science experiments, let’s do 3 spooky DIY halloween science experiments. Number 1 Epic Ghost Bubbles I gotta put these back. What you’ll need for this experiment is
some warm water, dish soap, a cup, a dry towel, a cotton glove, a heavy duty glove, or something
you can use to pick up really hot or cold stuff, dry ice, and this, which is called
a bubble generator, but it’s also known as a couple of other things. But don’t worry about where to get it and
all that, links to get EVERYTHING will be in description down below. First, what you want to do is mix the water
and soap together in a cup. This will be our bubble solution. Now, this alone is kinda cool. We can make bubbles. But these are just bubbles, we want epic ghost bubbles. It’s time to add in some epic. Take this bubble generator thingy and put
some water in it. Make sure the waterline is below this hole. Now, put the dry ice in the bubble generator. Make sure not to touch it, I repeat, don’t
touch it. Use your hardcore glove, or something like
it  to put it in. Ok, here it goes. Oh, cool! Before you cap it off, put the end of the
tube in your bubble mix to get it ready to be bubbled up. Woah! We got ourselves some epic ghost bubbles right here! That’s pretty cool, but you’ll notice that the bubbles will pop when you hit the table, so put down the towel so you can keep them around for more than a few seconds. Wow, these are cool. And the best part is is that you can hold
them in your hand if you put on these cotton gloves. Let’s try it out You want to try it, Walker? So what’s going on here? Well, dry ice is frozen Carbon Dioxide. Dry ice is called dry ice because when it
gets warmer, it doesn’t turn into a liquid, it turn into a gas. That’s why it’s all steamyyyyy. By the way, the fancy name for when a heated
solid turns not into the liquid but directly into a gas is sublimation. When in contact with the warm water, the frigid
dry ice, you guessed it, heats up. Once you cap off your bubble maker, all of
the CO2 gas is caught in the bubble maker. It builds and builds, and, eventually, it
can’t take it anymore. All of that air pressure forces the
gas to go out this tube, right where the bubble mix is waiting for it.>>ANNOYING GIRL: Dude from Technicality, that’s neat, but
why do I have to wear those gloves when handling the bubble? Will the bubble freeze my hand off or something? No, it’s perfectly fine to touch the bubble. Boop! But handing them with your cotton gloves
protects the bubble from all the dirt and oil on your hands, which will pop the bubble. Also, one more thing. If you actually do this experiment, you’ll
notice that these bubbles don’t really seem like bubbles; they’re a lot heavier. Wow, that’s heavy! That’s because CO2 is heavier than
just regular air, giving these ghost bubbles more of weight. And that’s the experiment! These mysterious, epic ghost bubbles will
be a hit at any Halloween party. 2. The CO2 Candle Putter-Outer You’ll need baking soda, vinegar, 2 cups,
and a lit candle. Bonus points for an extra festive pumpkin scented candle! I guess this experiment is going to be lit! Ok, I’ll stop. Anywho, first, mix together the baking soda
and vinegar, make sure you pour just enough so the bubbles fill all the way up to the
top. Thanks to the reaction that just happened,
this cup is now filled with carbon dioxide, or CO2. Now, we need to get the CO2 air that was just
made into the other cup, so tilt the cup over like this. Don’t pour any liquid in! The CO2 goes into the other cup and stays into the other cup because the CO2 is heavier than the surrounding air. It’s gonna look like you’re doing nothing,
but trust me, you’re doing it right. Thanks man! Finally the big moment has arrived. Pour your cup of CO2 over the flame, and watch
it go out like magic. Ok, so now that we know the trick, let’s explore
the science behind it! So, first off, why does mixing vinegar and
baking soda magically create the CO2 needed to put out the candle? Well, it’s not magic it’s science! More specifically, it’s a Brønsted-Lowry
Acid Base Reaction.>>ANNOYING GIRL: Woah woah woah. Slow down there, son. What’s that? Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin
Lowry were two chemists who both independently created this definition for how acids and
bases react to each other back in 1923. There are a couple other different kinds of
acid base reaction, like, but those aren’t important right now. A Brønsted-Lowry Acid Base Reaction is a
reaction that happens between compounds. These could be ionic compounds, covalent compounds,
anything is fair game. The reaction happens when the base takes a
hydrogen proton from the acid. So how does this relate to putting out candles? When we combine vinegar, the acid, with baking
soda, the base, baking soda takes one hydrogen proton from the vinegar. The product of this reaction is carbonic acid,
which is H2CO3 which then breaks down into water and carbon dioxide, or H2O and CO2. The water is, in part, that liquid left in
the first cup, and the carbon dioxide is the stuff you pour into the other cup. As we learned from the Epic Ghost Bubbles
experiment, carbon dioxide is heavier than air, so it should pour nicely onto the flame. Since fire needs oxygen to burn and the only
thing it has is CO2, the flame can’t stay alive and goes out. Sidenote here, fire extinguishers are filled
with CO2 for this very reason; it’s super effective at putting fires out. Anyways, this means that if you have dry ice,
which is just Carbon Dioxide so cold, it’s not in it’s usual gas state but in a solid
state, you could also use that to put out the candle Well, I guarantee you that you’re friends
will be blown away when you show them this spooky experiment. 3. The Shrieking Coin! Did you know that inside every nickel, Thomas
Jefferson is trapped, unable to get out, and whenever you press him against dry ice, he
shrieks for the world to hear!!! Wow, that just got legit. Anywho, so, if you have a Nickel and some dry ice,
push the coin on the frozen CO2. *The coin makes a shrieking noise* Woah, that’s actually kinda cold. And this will work for any coin. *The coins makes a shrieking noise* It gets even creepier! The coin shivers when you put it in a little
slit in the dry ice. *The coin makes shakes back and forth* Man, if you have some extra dry ice lying
around, which, of course, who doesn’t, this is a sweet party trick. I thought it was so cool, I showed it to my
friend Dianna, from the Physics Girl YouTube channel. Ok, sweet, here we go.>>DIANNA: Awesome, yea.>>ALEX: Ready? *The coins makes a shrieking noise*>>DIANNA: So cool! I’ve set a, uh, metal spoon against dry ice before, but I’ve never used a coin. And I just do it lightly and it gets some vibrations going. But I’ve never pressed it like that; that’s an amazing sound that it makes!>>ALEX: That’s super cool! But, Dianna, do you know why this happens?>>DIANNA: Good question Alex! When the coin is put on the dry ice, the dry
ice starts to sublimate because of the heat of the coin. Well, it’s not like the coin is hot, but it’s
hot relative to the dry ice. As the pressure builds up, the CO2 gas needs to escape, so it does by pushing
through the sides of the coin. This causes the quarter to vibrate, making
the weird shrieking noise we just heard. This also holds true for when the coin shivers
on its side. The coin sublimates the dry ice creating large
air currents which push around the coin. And those currents are causing the coin to move. That’s what’s going on!>>ALEX: Thank you so much Dianna for explaining that trick! It was really awesome you could come on the channel! I really appreciate it! And those are the 3 experiments! But, before I go, I have a bonus challenge
for you. *singing* BONUS CHALLENGE! For this bonus challenge, you’ll need a tea bag, a plate, a lighter, some scissors, and a pen is optional. I have this little ghost right here,
which is just a tea bag with the top cut off and I has a face I drew on. Let’s see what happens if I light this ghost on fire! Woah! That’s crazy! *Dramatic Classical Music Plays* What’s going on here? Can you explain the science behind that? Let me know in the comments below, and subscribe,
because I will soon release a video explaining that cool trick. And if you get it right, you and your
comment will be featured in that upcoming video. Dianna, do you want to sign off?>>DIANNA: Sure Alex! Thanks for watching, DFTBA, and explore on!>>ALEX: This video, as you probably noticed
was an awesome collaboration with Dianna from Physics Girl. Follow me over to her channel, where we look
at 6 Mind-Blowing Math Tricks. Dianna invited me to explain one of the math tricks over in that video! I can’t believe I’m going to be in a Physics Girl video! That’s so cool. Thanks so much Dianna! Click here on screen, with these cool new
end cards to watch the video. Dianna has a totally awesome YouTube channel
that is legit good, a matter of fact, without her videos, I would have never made episode
22, the one all about the Higgs Boson. So, uh, it’s really cool, check it out!

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